Aristotle and Beyond: Essays on Metaphysics and Ethics by Sarah Broadie

By Sarah Broadie

Written over a interval of thirty-five years, those essays, first released in 2007, discover the themes of causation, time, destiny, determinism, normal teleology, diverse conceptions of the human soul, the belief of the top reliable and the human importance of rest. whereas lots of the essays take as their starting-point a few subject in old Greek philosophy, they're intended no longer as exegesis yet as distinct and autonomous contributions to reside philosophizing. Written with readability, precision with out technicality, and philosophical mind's eye, they're going to interact a variety of readers, together with students and scholars of old Greek philosophy and others engaged on extra modern analytical issues.

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If, on the other hand, both were certain in principle as for us only the past is, events would appear, so to speak, to be continuing from both directions, which is to say they would not appear to have any direction, because not any one, and so would not be experienced as continuing at all. The schema of backwards continuing, then, can only be given content in actual application to experienced events by beings whose temporal knowledge of those events is, like ours, asymmetrical, but asymmetrical the opposite way.

Thus, if an event F is the effect of an earlier event E, this not only implies that E, as well as taking place during F, also happened earlier, but it also implies that E takes place during F having continued from earlier. And the reason it is not so easy to suppose that an event might be caused by a later event, is that the cause would then have to be understood not merely as coming after the effect, but as taking place during it, and as doing so by continuing to the time of the earlier event from later.

Indeed, the theoretical consequences of denying endurance to events are quite as awkward as those of denying it to objects. How in practice we identify a present event with 26 Aristotle and Beyond one that was occurring earlier, is a question there is not space here to consider, and which anyway deserves attention to itself. The point of importance for the present purpose is that if there is a valid sense in which it can be said that an event that was happening earlier is still happening now, there is also a valid sense in which it can be said that an event that was happening earlier is cause of something now.

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