By Cheryl Winning Ghinassi
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Hippocrates and his colleagues at the Kos College of Medicine in Athens established a rationale for distinguishing mental disorders and aberrant behaviors. 1 The Greek physician Hippocrates produced the earliest known case studies on phobias and depression. (Courtesy of National Library of Medicine) (mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia) from the Axis II disorders, which include the dysfunctional personality styles, or temperaments, as the Greeks called them. They identiﬁed phobias and hysteria as the anxiety disorders.
Wolpe emphasized the importance of actual (in vivo) exposure to the feared object and recommended that patients continue to do in vivo exposures at home between therapy sessions. Wolpe’s research laid the foundation for the development of exposure-based treatment for anxiety disorders, especially phobias and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In 1971, Arnold Lazarus (1932–), a psychologist and researcher who originated the term behavior therapy, published Behavior Therapy and Beyond, which criticized the strict adherence to behavioral strategies.
This page intentionally left blank 3 The Development of Modern Approaches to Anxiety Disorders EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIFIC TREATMENTS FOR ANXIETY AND ‘‘HYSTERIA’’ Dating back to ancient Greece, there has been a history of providing retreats where those who suffered from physical and mental illness could go to recover. In addition, the severely mentally ill needed to be protected from society, and in some cases, society needed to be protected from them. Unfortunately, these facilities varied over the centuries as to how humane and helpful they actually were.