By Eric Keightley Rideal
AN advent TO floor CHEMISTRY through ERIC KEIGHTLEY RIDBAL HUMPHREY OWEN JONES LECTURER IN actual CHEMISTRY CAMBRIDGE college CAMBRIDGE on the college PRESS 1926 Wilt Thou now not ope the center to understand What rainbows train and sunsets ahow EMERSON. c IN nice BBITAIN PREFACE by means of Professor F. G. DONNAN the significance of a correct research of the activities, equilibria, and constructions which take place at . the interfaces among homo geneous levels of subject is commonly regarded this day. therefore an information of those issues is needed for a formal less than status of adsorption, the formation and balance of disperse or micro-heterogeneous platforms colloid sols and gels, catalysis, enzyme activities, etc., while the development of analysis indicates increasingly more sincerely that the phenomena of existence, i. e. the behaviour of cells and tissues, are in detail keen on the activities happening at surfaces, and that the results produced by way of medicinal drugs, disinfectants, and different ingredients which profoundly impact the operation of cells and micro-organisms are principally as a result of floor activities. From the overall statistical and thermodynamic viewpoint, the clinical concept of floor phenomena was once put on a passable foundation by means of the researches of J. Willard Gibbs, Sir J. J. Thomson, and J. I, van der Waals. In relatively contemporary occasions the extra in timate molecular research of the constructions and kinetics of surfaces has complex very speedily, thank you, extra specifically to the pioneer paintings of Lord Eayleigh, Andre . Marcelin, Sir W. B. Hardy and Irving Langmuir. Our wisdom of this topic has been enormously elevated over the last few years via the superb paintings of N. Adam and of E. ok. Rideal. The mixed influence of those researches has been to bare the life of a newly regarded so-called dimensional molecular global, the dynamics of which has similarities to that of the standard 3 dimensional molecular international of homogeneous levels in bulk, when the constitution of this floor international offers new phenomena of molecular orientation of the top value for the knowledge of serious areas of average phenomena. the good benefit of Dr E. okay. Rideals booklet lies within the indisputable fact that the writer, while in no clever neglecting the thermodynamic therapy and its effects, supplies a really admirable account of this newer and very very important box of analysis. VI PREFACE for the reason that this is often additionally the main promising line of improve within the in vestigation of disperse structures, Dr Kideals e-book could be such a lot warmly instructed to all who're drawn to colloid physics and chemistry. within the final chapters the writer supplies a very good advent to the valuable evidence and theories of what's often understood to-day as colloid chemistry, in order that the reader is totally provided with every thing that's useful for an intensive lower than status of this topic. each scholar and investigator of floor and colloid phenomena owes Dr Rideal a hot debt of gratitude for his admirable survey and presentation of an excellent and swiftly advancing box of physico-chemical technology. F. G. D. college university, LONDON. April, 1926. INTEODUOTION crucial adjustments among the houses of subject while JL in bulk and within the colloidal country have been first defined by means of Thomas Graham. The learn of colloid chemistry consists of a attention of the shape and behavior of a brand new part, the interfacial section, owning distinct houses. in lots of platforms reactions either actual and chemical are saw that could be attributed to either bulk and interfacial stages. hence for a formal knowing of colloidal behaviour an information of the homes of surfaces and reactions at interfaces is obviously fascinating. while the stipulations of equilibrium for such structures have been essentially enunciated by means of J. Willard Gibbs and Sir J. J...
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Phys. Chem. xciv, 149, 1920), who compared his values with tkose of Grabowski and Pann (Diss. Konigsberg, 1904) (capillary rise) and Sentis (hanging drops) (Thtoe, Paris, 1897). Over a considerable range of concentration the results were found to be capable of expression by a linear formula ~~ W F = Km, m = mols of salt per 1000 gms. of water. solti. where The "water surface tension concentration curves were found however to be slightly convex towards the concentration axis, a curvature becoming more pronounced for strong solutions.
By THE UNIMOLECULAR GIBBS LAYER 49 the curve becomes more marked as the length of the hydrocarbon values the slight negative chain increases, whilst for large F curvature obtained for gases is faithfully reflected. 22 F in 24 26 28 SO dynes per cm. For the regions of high pressure Amagat proposed the equation PVPb to represent the behaviour of gases, an equation in which 6 is a constant for any one gas and represents the least volume the gas can occupy at these temperatures. On the other hand % varies' both with the nature of the gas and with the temperature, always approaching unity for very high temperatures and becoming 50 SUKFACE TENSION OF SOLUTIONS smaller as the temperature approaches the critical temperature.
Simple liquid SURFACE TENSION OF LIQUIDS 28 polymeric modification we should expect to find that the order of difference between their surface tensions in an imaginary and its pure state would be large in order to illustrate this point the example of Walker (Phil. Mag. XLVII. Ill, 1924) will be followed by constructing a table of surface tensions of pairs of compounds, one in each pair having approximately twice as large a nucleus as ; the other. In an extreme case the surface tension of diphenyl is almost double that of benzene at the same temperature and it would be expected that in a mixture of these substances the benzene would be preferentially adsorbed at the surface, and any attempt to find mean molecular weight of the two would break down.