An Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy: And of by John Stuart Mill

By John Stuart Mill

This Elibron Classics publication is a facsimile reprint of a 1889 version through Longmans, eco-friendly, and Co., London and big apple. 6th version.

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The Dionysian Self: C.G. Jung's Reception of Friedrich Nietzsche

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This reprinting of Paul Bishop’s 1995 doctoral dissertation is a welcome occasion in Nietzsche circles, and that i wish it will likely be seen with the gravity it merits in Jung circles besides, considering a part of Bishop’s function is “to go back Jung to a convention of highbrow debate from which, quite often due to his fans, he has been excluded” (1). The achieve right here redounds both to Nietzsche and Jung readers, simply because experts within the respective camps may use a greater figuring out of the intellectual-historical legacy assimilated through those thinkers. Jung’s history in Romantic Naturphilosophie (7), his conception of a “continuous culture inside of German literature and philosophy” that runs via Romanticism and Idealism (138), his position in the “Romantic longing for the go back of Dionysos” because it is carried by way of Hölderlin, Schelling, Creuzer, the Schlegels, Goethe, and Bachofen (369-72), and his final engagement with Nietzsche because the “apogee of post-Enlightenment proposal” (378) place him as arguably the main consequential Nietzschean of the 20th century, and if Jung himself is to be believed, the 1st winning Dionysian. Bishop demonstrates as in actual fact as someone i've got learn that Nietzschean notions of the self are actually notions of a Dionysian self, paradoxical because it sounds on condition that “self” is meant to align with the Apollinian. Bishop’s elevation of Dionysian selfhood in Jung sheds mild at the Dionysian contribution to modernity particularly because it contributes to types and notions of creativity. For these folks who've attempted to complicated on Nietzsche’s realizing of the “Dionysian philosopher,” Bishop’s procedure imparts intensity to Nietzsche’s undertaking via reframing the dialogue as “Dionysian self. ”

The energy of fable as represented through Goethe, Nietzsche, and Jung specifically were good formulated by way of the Jungian Joseph Campbell, whose paintings on myths grew to become widely recognized during the media of print and tv (14). The neo-Jungian James Hillman in the meantime “takes the determine of Dionysos to symbolize an act of psychic restoration of misplaced powers and power, now rendered to be had to be used” (19). Hillman’s experience of the Dionysian aligns very heavily with Goethe’s in Faust, which a few regard as an scan in rolling again misogyny and repositioning the corporeal and the non secular with admire to the earth—for that topic Jung used to be larger than an individual else in spotting the kinship among Faust and Zarathustra as “extraverted” works. Bishop demonstrates the validity of the triad Goethe, Nietzsche, Jung, at the same time he qualifies Jung’s claims or aspirations to be a type of “superior” or “successful” Nietzsche at the foundation of a profitable integration of the Dionysian (80). in any case, Nietzsche had syphilis to deal with, in contrast to Goethe and Jung, and finally insanity as well—for an individual who almost introduced Dionysus again to existence for moderns, those tragic skills are concurrently a blessing and a curse. The centrality of Goethe, Nietzsche, and Jung to fashionable suggestion rests on a Dionysian starting place. Jung needed to learn how to settle for the Dionysian as a good strength, as established within the destructive view of Dionysus elaborated in Psychologische Typen (1921) because it shifts to confident in “Psychologie und Dichtung” (1930)—Bishop attributes this shift to Jung’s elevated curiosity within the Dionysian in accordance with seminars he gave among 1925 and 1936 (167). furthermore, the Dionysian beginning contains the Apollo-Dionysus polarity. Bishop explains how Goethe and Schelling labored with the phrases “systole” and “diastole” as cosmological rules, which Jung then tailored to mental rules wherein “the technique of diastole is linked to the extraverted perspective, which subordinates the topic to the article” (140). as a result Zarathustra is an extraverted paintings in line with Jung since it is diastolic in nature; he attracts on Goethe right here to formulate a style for discussing the mental attributes of Apollo and Dionysus (140).

Perhaps the main consequential variation of Dionysian and Nietzschean fabric happens in Jung’s reaction to the matter of faith signified via the loss of life of God. looking on the place one alternatives up the thread of Jung’s reception of Nietzsche (and Bishop’s booklet is thorough and trustworthy in tracing this course), readers should be questioned through Jung’s insistence that Nietzsche represented a pathological personality, and by means of Jung’s eagerness to return to the safeguard of faith. Bishop does a very good activity of explaining those Jungian matters, claiming that Jung constructs a “Dionysian Self which, throughout the dialectic of recognition and the subconscious, allows the Ego to die and be reborn anew” (17). this can be a compelling formula of the matter after we ponder that Dionysus is the without end resurrecting god, and that either Goethe and Nietzsche pack their respective masterpieces with birthing metaphors and their respective protagonists suffer rebirth (cf. additionally p. seventy two, the place Bishop discusses Rose Pfeffer’s early reputation in 1972 that Goethe and Nietzsche either depend on transcendent metaphors regardless of their aversion to metaphysics). Nor used to be Jung able to settle for Nietzsche’s end that Dionysus needs to oppose Christ: “Jung evolves a programme for you to remodel the Crucified again into the god of the grape, thereby liberating hitherto inhibited powers of power” (64). Jung’s most vital publication, Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido (1912), could be considered as his Faustian “descent into the depths of the soul,” and the “return of the libido to an subconscious resource of recent mental existence” (94). once again Bishop choices up the thread of this essentially romantic preoccupation with rebirth and renewal, by way of explaining how Hölderlin observed Dionysos as “den kommenden Gott” (the coming god, 94). after all at this juncture Bishop must have spoke of Hölderlin’s nice elegy “Brod und Wein,” which positive aspects either Dionysus and Christ in just the synergy that later captivated Jung, even though he does a section later discuss with “Patmos” during this context (101). the big strength and curiosity Jung summoned for making a function for faith as a reaction to Nietzsche’s declare that God is lifeless is summarized thusly: “As early as 1912, then, Jung had set his post-Nietzschean schedule for the transformation of religion right into a secular, mental faith” (107). As pointed out above, “Dionysian self” parallels “Dionysian philosophizing,” and while Nietzsche remodeled religion into Dionysian philosophy, Jung could practice that very same strength to a “psychological faith. ”

Jung’s holiday with Freud used to be strongly prompted, in accordance with Bishop, through his expanding immersion within the matrix of mythological institutions brought on through Nietzsche’s commencing of the Dionysian portal, first in beginning of Tragedy then extra powerfully and authentically in Zarathustra. Nietzsche didn't communicate of his trip to Dionysus as a katabasis on the time of start of Tragedy, yet relatively significantly he opened his Zarathustra via depicting the hero’s katabasis, actually his “going under,” and that i think Jung came across the instance of katabasis to be compelling relating to either Goethe and Nietzsche. Bishop finds how in a letter to Freud, Jung divulges that he used to be making an highbrow descent to the world of the moms, elaborating the entire difficulties produced through the libido-occupied mom imago; he's “hidden” (Jung’s time period; ostensibly end result of the hazards occupied with traveling the moms) during this attempt by means of a katabasis into the world of the moms (66). Jung started to reject the incest-based measurement of this going-down, this katabasis, reinterpreting it as an alternative “as a go back to a non-sexual mom, symbolizing the subconscious, and this used to be the message of Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido” (67). hence it was once in this decisive element of departure from Freud that Jung quoted Nietzsche’s Zarathustra in a letter to Freud, explaining within the identify and phrases of Nietzsche’s prophet: “One repays a instructor badly if one continues to be just a scholar” (67). different modernist writers who have been contemporaries of Jung made their very own descent into the Dionysian underworld, between them Conrad, Eliot, and Thomas Mann (175). yet whereas Jung essentially used Nietzsche as a part of his critique of Freudian psychoanalysis, he started to view either Nietzsche and Freud as too materialistic of their psychology, to the purpose the place he, Jung, seen Nietzsche’s “spectacular failure to barter with Dionysos” as pointing tips to his personal “more profitable lodging with the Dionysian subconscious” (193). The seminar on Zarathustra from the Thirties demonstrates that “Jung used to be in a position to relate virtually each major element in Nietzsche’s philosophy to a corresponding concept in his Analytical Psychology,” with the end result that either by utilizing Nietzsche to leverage a holiday from Freud, then by means of leveraging the holiday from Freud to wreck from Nietzsche, Jung bought his replacement process (296-7, 364).

Of direction Jung together with his thought of the anima, a feminine precept representing the soul particularly in males, may were sympathetic to Goethe’s portrayal of the moms in Faust, whereas Nietzsche famously had not anything yet contempt for Goethe’s inspiration of the everlasting female. yet Jung made a mistake in claiming that the anima used to be absent from Nietzsche and Zarathustra, and that it was once successfully purged or displaced by way of the concept that of the superhuman (318). actually, Nietzsche’s anima, to exploit Jung’s time period, is particularly a lot alive all through Zarathustra within the determine of the disguised Ariadne, as i've got argued at quite a few occasions through the final 3 many years. Bishop is aware that “Woman represents the chthonic energies and subterranean forces of Dionysos,” and that “Jung drew realization to the conventional functionality of girl as a illustration of the darkish aspect of lifestyles” (319), yet he misses the chance to indicate the constraints of Jung’s declare that the anima is missing in Nietzsche. it might be extra exact to assert that Nietzsche suppressed the female, in himself and within the Dionysian, after which try and reconstruct the foundation on which Nietzsche felt forced to perform this seductive, disguised, ironic (masked) suppression of the feminine—but neither Jung nor Bishop enterprise into this tough terrain. equally, whilst Bishop discusses the importance of the phallus to Jung’s figuring out of Dionysus, and issues to a passage in Twilight of the Idols that Jung had highlighted in his replica, he likewise provides brief shrift to Nietzsche’s relative silence at the phallus—another point of the Dionysian which Nietzsche suppresses. We needs to remember that it's a hugely selective Dionysus whom Nietzsche introduces, one for example who's no longer in most cases liked as a woman’s god. At different occasions, and very for the main half, Bishop is particularly perceptive certainly in checking out the threads of Nietzsche’s masked discourse at the female, for example the place he means that Jung can have been encouraged to make his personal descent to the moms ultimately by way of Goethe, yet first via Nietzsche’s mediation of Goethe (171-2). This in flip indicates, as I proceed to argue, that Nietzsche observed himself in pageant with Goethe within the topic of the female and the Dionysian, no longer in contrast to Jung felt himself to be in festival with Nietzsche in concerns of the Dionysian.

There are numerous issues on which Jung and Nietzsche essentially fluctuate. First, Nietzsche do not need authorized Jung’s verdict that he, Nietzsche, represented a failed Dionysian (80), even though arguably he could were tickled by way of Jung’s edition of the Dionysian philosophizing into “psychological faith. ” Nor may Nietzsche have authorised Jung’s insistence on a unmarried, Kantian morality present in each one folks a priori (134). For Nietzsche, there are lots of attainable moralities, and the Kantian isn't really a very potent one from the perspective of selfhood and selfishness. Jung additionally had to provide either Goethe and Nietzsche sure Teutonic dimensions with which the 2 thinkers may disagree, arguing that it truly is unattainable non-German might write Faust and Zarathustra (169). those are works of worldwide literature, works of common poetry within the maximum experience, and subsuming them below “Teutonic” simply because they ensue to were written in German turns out a little a stretch, although their universal genesis in theoretical romanticism. Jung was once additionally relatively serious of the superhuman, failing to determine whatever confident within the inspiration (234-5), regardless of Nietzsche’s credible achievements in linking the concept that to the that means of the earth—for all his speak of katabasis, intuition, and libido, Jung used to be too metaphysical for an appreciation of Nietzsche’s ecological proclivities. On a comparable be aware, Jung ascribed a moment personality to Dionysus, particularly Wotan, thereby subscribing to the Förster-Nietzsche-Wagner imaginative and prescient of Nietzsche experiences. Jung could have wanted the presence of this Germanic war-god to justify his personal stance on Germany’s debacle in WW II. Bishop properly distances himself from Jung in this aspect too: “It is very ironic as a result, that Nietzsche must have been misused by way of the nationwide Socialists, and that Jung must have risked complicity with that abuse, it seems that not able to wrestle the tenets of reactionary, pagan politics—Dionysos within the Wotanist mode” (379).

This is a richly documented, mature and trustworthy remedy of Jung’s debt to Nietzsche, rendered much more invaluable by way of Bishop’s entry to Jung’s library, the place he transcribed Jung’s annotations, his greater use of assets in German and English, and his correction of frequently defective translations of Jung’s works. The booklet includes way over i'm able to convey the following, and that i surprise on the caliber of this dissertation—it should be one of the very most interesting titles to have seemed within the venerable Monographien und Texte zur Nietzsche-Forschung.

The Oxford Handbook of World Philosophy

The Oxford instruction manual of global Philosophy offers the complex pupil or pupil a collection of introductions to every of the world's significant non-European philosophical traditions. It deals the non-specialist a manner in to surprising philosophical texts and techniques and the chance to discover non-European philosophical terrain and to attach her paintings in a single culture to philosophical rules or texts from one other.

Extra info for An Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy: And of the Principal Philosophical Questions Discussed in His Writings

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This attitude is due ultimately to the unfamiliarity of his perspective; one tends to assimilate him to familiar patterns. If one notices that he is not a doctrinaire liberal, for example, then it is difficult not to assume that he must be a doctrinaire conservative. ’”4 What makes Voegelin’s thought difficult to grasp for any person accustomed to the more common type of philosophical exposition is that he is not in any sense an ideological thinker. He does not present a system of ideas that could be labeled according to any of the traditional designations—such as “materialist,” “idealist,” “empiricist,” “realist,” and so on—and, what must be still more disconcerting to many, he does not even present a standard philosophical argument of the sort that leads the reader from premises to a conclusion through the force of formal logic.

Copyright © 1981 by the University of Washington Press Paperback edition 1987, 2014 All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Webb, Eugene, 1938– Eric Voegelin, philosopher of history. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1.

See, for example, Havard, “Voegelin’s Changing Conception,” pp. 14–16, 24, and Hallowell’s preface to From Enlightenment to Revolution. Havard and Hallowell locate it simply in the 1940s. Voegelin himself has discussed the important advances in his thinking—focusing on his radical break with Husserl’s phenomenology—that took place in 1943 in the new first chapter, “Remembrance of Things Past,” of the English edition of Anamnesis, trans. Gerhart Niemeyer (Notre Dame and London: Notre Dame University Press, 1978), pp.

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