By Hester R.E., Harrison R.M. (eds.)
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13 Conclusion The full extent of the toxicity of pesticides to aquatic life is not known. Although chronic toxicity testing is required for new substances, little is known about the long-term effects of older pesticides. Also, very little is known about the toxicity and occurrence of the products formed when pesticides break down (metabolites) or the many non-pesticidal additives (co-formulants and adjuvants) used in pesticide formulations. However, the future is looking brighter.
The NRA is developing its own operational EQSs for priority pollutants 53 K. R. Eke et al. 01R *Used by the NRA in 1993/94. RProposed by DoE. SProposed by Water Research Centre. § Proposed by NRA. ¶ Atrazinie and Simazine. Others are statutory. through its national Research and Development Programme. Although non-statutory at present, these standards are used by the NRA to derive consent conditions. Table 3 shows some of the EQSs currently available for agricultural pesticides. 1 g l\, but very few have been recorded as failing these operational standards.
M. Wilson, M. T. Gibson and P. E. O’Sullivan, Aquat. , 1993, 3, 239. 37 A. J. D. Ferguson et al. highly significant, removal of the nutrient-rich sediment can be an effective option. However, in many cases there are considerable practical problems with the removal of the sediment. Physical Controls The methods available include enhanced flushing, enhanced vertical mixing, altered mixing frequency, and food-web manipulation. Provided that the waterbody is deep enough to stratify naturally, that the volume of bottom water is at least as great as the surface mixed layer and that light penetrates to less than half of the fully-mixed volume, destratification is likely to be effective.