Addition and Condensation Polymerization Processes by Gould R.F. (ed.)

By Gould R.F. (ed.)

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Removing the bark from a Pacific yew kills the tree, the bark from a 40-foot tree yields a very small quantity of the drug (less than half a gram), and it takes more than 100 years for a tree to grow to 40 feet. Had it not been for the discovery that paclitaxel’s method for killing cancer cells was unique, which opened new avenues for research, the drug probably would not have been commercialized. You are probably curious about why this substance can kill cancer cells when thousands of other substances collected by botanists do not.

Known quantity units ϫ desired quantity units ϭ desired quantity units known quantity units proportionality (conversion) factor 3784 mL ϫ Go to the Coached Problems menu for a tutorial on unit conversion. 55 g ϭ 51,270 g 1 mL A proportionality factor is a ratio (fraction) whose numerator and denominator have different units but refer to the same thing. In the preceding example, the proportionality factor is the density, which relates the mass and volume of the same sample of mercury. A proportionality factor is often called a conversion factor because it enables us to convert from one kind of unit to a different kind of unit.

Energy transfers of its own accord from an object at a higher temperature to a cooler object. In the United States, everyday temperatures are reported using the Fahrenheit temperature scale. On this scale the freezing point of water is by definition 32 °F and the boiling point is 212 °F. The Celsius temperature scale is used in most countries of the world and in science. On this scale 0 °C is the freezing point and 100 °C is the boiling point of pure water at a pressure of one atmosphere. The number of units between the freezing and boiling points of water is 180 Fahrenheit degrees and 100 Celsius degrees.

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