By Samuel Hugh McGrady
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Extra resources for A note-book of European history, 1400-1920
Iii) Marks the Beginnings of Modem Science. VI GEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERY The voyages of discovery, which began with the Crusades and ended with Columbus and Da Gama, were aided by improvements in navigation: (a) the magnetic needle (probably invented by the Chinese, and used in the West at the beginning of the fourteenth century) and the astrolabe ; (b) the rise of the sailing-ship, which made it no longer necessary to keep close to the shore. (1) PORTUGAL The Portuguese began to push southward along the coast of Africa .
Ximenes, Morton, and Wolsey wished to reform the monasteries, and the reform of the ecclesiastical system from within was advocated by the Oxford Reformers (More, Colet, Grocyn, Linacre) and Erasmus. By the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis (1559) Philip II and Henry II united in defence of Catholicism. A period of reaction against the Reformation set in, and many parts of Europe were recovered for the Catholics. Protestantism was crushed in Spain and Italy, the Southern Netherlands were recovered for the Catholic cause, while in Germany the success of the reaction led eventually to the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648).
John XXII against the Visconti; Julius II against Venice. g. conduct of Alexander VI and his son, Cesare Borgia. " The Venetian Ambassador described Rome as the sewer of the world (1499), and D • AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE Machiavelli thought that through its example all religion had perished in Italy. (b) The Abuses of the Ecclesiastical Courts. "The rule of the Church was nothing for nothing," and the Curia sold justice to the highest bidder. " The lower clergy were falmers, or criminals and vagabonds (since Spiritual Courts could pronounce no judgments of blood), and the higher clergy were courtiers.